An EMD GP40 at the Wells Industrial Park in Wells, Maine, adjacent to the mainline of Guilford Rail System (formerly the Boston and Maine Railroad) in 1999.
(BMRR at en.wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons)



The EMD GP40 is a 4-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by General Motors' Electro-Motive Division between November 1965 and December 1971. It has an EMD 645E3 16-cylinder engine generating 3,000 hp (2,240 kW).

The GP40 is 3 feet (0.914 m) longer than its EMD 567D3A-engined predecessor, the GP35, and distinguished visually by its three 48-inch radiator fans at the rear of the long hood, while the GP35 has two large fans and a smaller one in between. It was built on a 55 ft (16.76 m) frame; the GP35 was built on a 52 ft (15.85 m) frame - as was the GP7, 9, 18, and 30. The difference in length can be seen in the GP40's ten handrail stanchions compared to the GP35's nine.

1,187 GP40s were built for 28 U.S. railroads; 16 were built for one Canadian carrier, Canadian National; and 18 were built for two Mexican carriers, Ferrocarril Chihuahua al Pacífico and Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México. 60 units were built with high-short-hoods and dual control stands for Norfolk & Western Railway. Two passenger versions, the GP40P and GP40TC, were also built, but on longer frames to accommodate steam generators and HEP equipment.

On January 1, 1972, the GP40 was discontinued and replaced by the GP40-2, which has a modular electrical system and a few minor exterior changes.



The GP22ECO is a locomotive built from recycled GP40/GP40-2 parts. The frame, trucks, and carbody are refurbished, while the 16-645 engine is replaced with a new 8-710-ECO engine. The electrical system is replaced with a modern microprocessor-based system. Horsepower is reduced to 2,150 due to the smaller engine.


Gallery of Images


A Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad GP40 running long hood forward. (Ckape at English Wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)


A GP40 of Union Pacific Railroad heritage, now owned by Webb Asset Management. (terry cantrell, CC BY-SA 2.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons)

A GP40 owned by Helm Locomotive Leasing. (terry cantrell, CC BY-SA 2.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Ex-Burlington Northern GP40M No. 3004 at Lincoln, Nebraska in 2011. (Augy8400, CC BY-SA 4.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons)

A GP40 owned by Larry's Truck & Electric (LTEX). (Michael Barera, CC BY-SA 4.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons)


Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México (FNM) EMD GP40 8407 at Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico, January 11, 1997. Photographer: Paul Wester. (Craig Garver, Public domain.)


Chihuahua al Pacifico EMD GP40 1001 at Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico, February, 1974. Photographer unknown. (Craig Garver, Public domain)

Missouri Kansas Texas EMD GP40 213 at Parsons, Kansas, March, 1989. Photographer: Craig Garver. (Craig Garver, Public domain)

Southern Pacific EMD GP40 3086 at Liberty Rail (painting contractor), at Pueblo West, Colorado, July 19, 1992.  Photographer: Andy Payne. (Craig Garver, Public domain)

Chessie System (B&O) EMD GP40 No. 6512, 1987. (By Gary Todd from Xinzheng, China, CC0, Wikimedia Commons)

Original owners

Railroad Quantity Road Numbers Notes
Atlanta & West Point 7 726-732
Atlantic Coast Line 15 915-929 To Seaboard Coast Line 1500-1514
Baltimore & Ohio 161 3684-3779, 4000-4064
Chesapeake & Ohio 50 3780-3794, 4065-4099 3794 was the last GP40 built
Chihuahua Pacifico 18 1000-1007
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 40 170-189, 620-639
Canadian National 16 4002-4017
DeQueen & Eastern 1 D-7
Denver, Rio Grande & Western 43 3051-3093
Detroit, Toledo & Ironton 6 400-405
Florida East Coast 10 401-410
Georgia Railroad 4 751-754
Illinois Central 75 3000-3074
Louisville & Nashville 30 3000-3029
Milwaukee Road 72 153-199, 2047-2071 2068-2071 were EMD warranty loaners
Missouri-Kansas-Texas 61 170-230
Norfolk & Western 60 1329-1388 High-nose
National de Mexico 10 8400-8409
New York Central 105 3000-3104 3036 was the first GP40 built
Penn Central 170 3105-3274 3260-3274 were EMD warranty loaners
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac 7 121-127
Rock Island 77 340-396, 4700-4719 Financed by Union Pacific (because of the proposed merger)
Seaboard Air Line 51 600-650 To Seaboard Coast Line 1515-1565
Seaboard Coast Line 70 1566-1635
SOO Line 4 732-735
St. Louis-Southwestern (Cotton Belt) 8 7600-7607
Texas, Oklahoma, & Eastern 3 D-12 - D-14
Toledo, Peoria & Western 1 1000 Ex-EMD warranty loaner
Western Railway of Alabama 7 701-707
Western Maryland 5 3795-3799
Western Pacific 44 3501-3544 3501-3516 built with large Pyle single headlight


Type and origin
Power type: Diesel-electric
Builder: U.S., General Motors, Electro-Motive Division (EMD)
Builder: Canada, General Motors Diesel (GMD)
Model: GP40
Build date: November 1965 – December 1971
Total produced: 1,221
​• AAR B-B
• UIC Bo'Bo'
Gauge: 4 ft 8+1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Prime mover: EMD 645E3
Engine type: V16 diesel
Cylinders: 16
Performance figures
Power output: 3,000 hp (2.24 MW)
Locale: North America