Atlantic Coast Line Railroad (ACL) Baldwin-built Q-1 class Santa Fe 2-10-2 No. 2015 at Montgomery, Alabama in 1948.

(Internet photo, Fair use, Title 17, Section 107, via W. Lenheim Collection)



The USRA Heavy Santa Fe was a USRA standard class of steam locomotive designed under the control of the United States Railroad Administration, the nationalized railroad system in the United States during World War I. These locomotives were of 2-10-2 wheel arrangement in the Whyte notation, or 1′E1′ in UIC classification; this arrangement was commonly named "Santa Fe" in the United States. At the time, the Santa Fe was the largest non-articulated type in common use, primarily in slow drag freight duty in ore or coal service.

A total of 175 of these locomotives were constructed under the auspices of the USRA. They went to the following railroads:

Table of original USRA allocation

Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad 5 D2A 521–525
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad 10 M-3 6300–6309 At times leased to the Colorado and Southern Railway
Erie Railroad 25 R-3 4200–4224
Colorado and Southern Railway 5 E-5B 905–909
Pennsylvania Railroad 130 N2s Random between 7036 and 9859.
Total 175

The Pennsylvania Railroad locomotives were later refitted with the Pennsylvania's trademark Belpaire fireboxes. None of the originals built under USRA auspices or any of the subsequent copies were preserved.


USRA Heavy Santa Fe diagram.

(1922 Locomotive Cyclopedia of American Practice, Public domain, Wikimedia Commons)



Type and origin
Power type: Steam
Builder: American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Works
Build date: 1919
Total produced: 175
​• Whyte 2-10-2
• UIC 1′E1′ h2
Gauge: 4 ft 8+1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Leading diameter: 33 in (838 mm)
Driver diameter: 63 in (1,600 mm)
Trailing diameter: 43 in (1,092 mm)
Wheelbase: 42 ft 2 in (12.85 m)
Length: 55 ft 4 in (16.87 m) without tender
Width: 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m)
Height: 15 ft 9 in (4.80 m)
Adhesive weight: 293,000 lbs (133,000 kg; 133 t)
Locomotive weight: 380,000 lbs (170,000 kg; 170 t)
Total weight: 586,000 lbs (266,000 kg; 266 t)
Fuel type: Soft coal (bituminous)
Firebox: ​
• Grate area: 82.2 sq ft (7.64 m2)
Boiler pressure: 190 psi (1.31 MPa)
Heating surface: 5,156 sq ft (479.0 m2) ​
• Tubes 3,258 sq ft (302.7 m2)
• Flues 1,469 sq ft (136.5 m2)
• Firebox 429 sq ft (39.9 m2)
​• Heating area 1,230 sq ft (114.3 m2)
Cylinders: Two
Cylinder size: 30 in × 32 in (762 mm × 813 mm)
Valve gear: Southern (see drawing)
Performance figures
Tractive effort: 74,000 lbf (329.2 kN)
Factor of adhesion: 3.96
Career: Active on 6 U.S. Railroads
Disposition: All scrapped between 1953 and 1955