Ex-Milwaukee Road Super Dome No. 53 at Winona, Minnesota, in 2010.

(Michael Hicks, CC BY 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)


Milwaukee Road logo.
Pullman-Standard logo.


The Super Dome was a Dome car built by Pullman-Standard for the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad ("Milwaukee Road") in 1952. The ten Super Domes were the first full-length dome cars in revenue service, first operating on the Olympian Hiawatha and Twin Cities Hiawatha in late 1952. Although a mixed blessing in passenger use, the cars garnered much publicity for the Milwaukee Road and several remain in operation.


The lower-level lounge area in 1952.

(Milwaukee Road, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)



See also: Dome car
The first successful dome design in the United States was the "Vista Dome." The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad ("CB&Q") rebuilt a stainless steel Budd-built coach in their shops in Aurora, Illinois, with the Vista Dome design imagined and sketched by Cyrus Osborn. The dome area featured seats positioned lengthwise in the cabin facing double-pane windows which were designed to improve insulation. On July 23, 1945, the car was tested in the consist of the Twin Cities Zephyr.  No fewer than five Budd-built domes would be found in each equipment set of the new California Zephyr when it debuted in 1949.  Not to be outdone, Pullman delivered its first four domes, which it dubbed "Astra Liners", in 1947 for use on the Union Pacific Railroad.

The dome seating area in the Vista Dome was comparatively limited: 24, with an additional 46 standard seats on the lower level. In the early 1950s Pullman developed a "full-length" design, with the dome seating area stretching the length of the car. This design posed several challenges. The full-length glass roof (625-square-foot (58.1 m2)) necessitated a new, powerful air-conditioning system from a dedicated diesel motor. The massive weight of the car, 224,000 pounds (102,000 kg), required reinforced three-axle trucks from General Steel Castings. Much of this weight was concentrated in the glass dome, which meant new framing techniques to support the second level above the first. The result was an 80-foot (24 m)-long dome level which could seat 68, nearly three times that of the Vista Dome. The lounge area beneath seated 28 in booths.


Illustration of the lower-level interior of the Pullman-built all dome lounge cars of the Milwaukee Road. March 17, 1952. (Milwaukee Road, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

Illustration of the lower-level interior of the Pullman-built all dome lounge cars of the Milwaukee Road. This is a second illustration of the other end of the car. March 17, 1952. (Milwaukee Road, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)


Illustration of the upper-level interior of the all dome Pullman-built Milwaukee Road lounge cars. March 17, 1952. (Milwaukee Road, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

Service history

Milwaukee Road

The Milwaukee Road began taking delivery of the Super Domes in late 1952. They were numbered Nos. 50 - No. 59. The name was chosen via an employee naming contest; rejected suggestions included Master Dome, Ultra Dome, and Panorama Dome. The domes were used on the daytime Twin Cities Hiawatha and the transcontinental Olympian Hiawatha. The Super Domes were the first and only cars on a daytime Hiawatha train built by a third party; all other Hiawatha equipment (such as the distinctive Beaver Tail and Skytop lounges) were built by the Milwaukee Road in its own shops.

The Super Domes were not a complete success in Milwaukee Road service. The heavy cars gave a rough ride, and the seats in the dome area gave an inferior view because they lay too low compared to the dome's supporting bulkheads. Still, the fame of having the first full-length dome car was good publicity for the railroad.  After the discontinuance of the Olympian Hiawatha in 1961 Super Domes were seen on some of the services the Milwaukee Road operated with the Union Pacific, including the City of Denver. In 1964 the Milwaukee Road sold six of the domes to the Canadian National Railway, along with the sleeper-lounge Skytop Lounges. The remaining four domes continued on the Twin Cities Hiawatha.

Ex-Milwaukee Road Super Dome car, Hinton, WV, October 21, 2007.

(jpmueller99 from Shenandoah Valley of VA, USA, CC BY 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)


Canadian National/VIA

The Canadian National Railway (CN) purchased six Super Domes from the Milwaukee Road in 1964. The CN dubbed these "Sceneramic" cars and placed them in service on the Super Continental.  VIA Rail inherited all six and used them into the early 1980s, when they were sold off to private owners.


Amtrak leased the Milwaukee Road's four remaining Super Domes on its inception in 1971, later purchasing them outright. They saw service on numerous routes, including the San Francisco Zephyr and Coast Starlight. Amtrak sold all four in the late 1970s. Amtrak acquired three cars from Tour Alaska in 1990 and operated them through 1995 on their Auto Train service.  The North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) acquired former No. 53 in 1996 and used it on the Piedmont before selling it in 2005.


An Olympian Hiawatha poster depicting a Super Dome from 1953.

(Milwaukee Road, W. Lenheim Collection)


An Olympian Hiawatha print ad featuring the Super Dome from 1953.

(Milwaukee Road, W. Lenheim Collection)


Table of names and numbers

Milwaukee Road No. CN 1964 No. CN 1974 No. Canadian National name Notes
50 (1st) Written-off in derailment before delivery; replaced by Pullman-Standard
50 (2nd) 2400 2700 Jasper to Tour Alaska 7092; to Amtrak 9310
51 2404 2704 Qu'appelle
52 2405 2705 Columbia to Tour Alaska 7090; to Amtrak 9311
53 2401 2701 Athabaska to RTA; to CNW business train as 421 Powder River
54 2402 2702 Yellowhead to Tour Alaska (for parts)
56 2403 2703 Fraser to Tour Alaska 7091; to Amtrak 9312

The Napa Valley Wine Train in Napa, California in 1999. The Super Dome is furthest right.

(This photograph is an original work by "Will Murray (Willscrlt)". Attribution must be given to the author, which includes the author's name, his username in parentheses as shown, and a link to either his Website at http://willmurray.name or his online gallery at http://willmurraymedia.com. The author also appreciates notification if you use his work outside Wikimedia., CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)


Preserved examples

Several Super Domes remain in operation, mostly with heritage railways. One noteworthy example is No. 52, which after decades on the Milwaukee, Canadian National, VIA Rail, and various private operators, has been part of the Napa Valley Wine Train since 1995 (although the company refers to it as a "Vista Dome"). Another is No. 53, which usually travels behind Milwaukee Road 261. 55 is now Reading & Northern Car 4, and 59 is now Reading & Northern Car 5. As well, there is one in service with Canadian National railway on their executive train.


Ontario Northland Railway Super Dome car Otter Rapids used on Polar Bear Express train, 2008.

(Rev40, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)



Manufacturer: Pullman-Standard
Constructed: 1952
Entered service: 1952–present
Number built: 10
Capacity: 68 dome seats; 28 lounge seats
Operators: Milwaukee Road, Canadian National Railway, Amtrak, VIA Rail Canada, Various heritage railroads