Metro-North Railroad provides services in the lower Hudson Valley and Western Connecticut.

(AEMoreira042281, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Metro-North Railroad logo.

METRO-NORTH RAILROAD

Metro-North Railroad (reporting mark MNCW), trading as MTA Metro-North Railroad, is a suburban commuter rail service operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), a public authority of the U.S. state of New York. Metro-North serves the New York Metropolitan Area, running service between New York City and its northern suburbs in New York and Connecticut, including Port Jervis, Spring Valley, Poughkeepsie, Yonkers, New Rochelle, Mount Vernon, White Plains, Southeast and Wassaic in New York and Stamford, New Canaan, Danbury, Bridgeport, Waterbury, and New Haven in Connecticut. Service in Connecticut is operated under contract with the Connecticut Department of Transportation. Metro-North also provides local rail service within the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx.

Metro-North is the descendant of commuter rail services dating back as early as 1832. By 1969, they had all been acquired by Penn Central. MTA acquired all three lines by 1972, but Penn Central continued to operate them under contract. Service was transferred to Conrail in 1976, when it absorbed most of Penn Central's railroad functions after Penn Central's bankruptcy. The system took its current form in 1983, when the MTA took over direct operation of Conrail's commuter services in the northern portion of the Tri-State Area and formed Metro-North to run them.

There are 124 stations on Metro-North Railroad's five active lines, which operate on more than 787 miles (1,267 km) of track, with the passenger railroad system totaling 385 miles (620 km) of route. It is the second busiest commuter railroad in North America in terms of annual ridership, behind the Long Island Rail Road and ahead of NJ Transit (both of which also serve New York City). As of 2018, Metro-North's budgetary burden for expenditures was $1.3 billion, which it supports through the collection of taxes and fees. In 2023, the system had a ridership of 60,569,700, or about 233,600 per weekday as of the fourth quarter of 2023.

The MTA has jurisdiction, through Metro-North, over railroad lines on the western and eastern portions of the Hudson River in New York. Service on the western side of the Hudson is operated by NJ Transit under contract with the MTA. Additionally, connecting ferry service is operated by NY Waterway, also under contract with the MTA.

 

Marble Hill station on the Hudson Line.

(Aspersions, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Lines

East of the Hudson River

Three lines provide passenger service on the east side of the Hudson River to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan: the Hudson, Harlem, and New Haven Lines. The Beacon Line is a freight line owned by Metro-North but is not in service.

The Hudson and Harlem Lines terminate in Poughkeepsie and Wassaic, New York, respectively.

The New Haven Line is operated through a partnership between Metro-North and the State of Connecticut. The Connecticut Department of Transportation (CTDOT) owns the tracks and stations within Connecticut, and finances and performs capital improvements. MTA owns the tracks and stations and handles capital improvements within New York State. MTA performs routine maintenance and provides police services for the entire line, its branches and stations. New cars and locomotives are typically purchased in a joint agreement between MTA and CTDOT, with the agencies paying for 33.3% and 66.7% of costs respectively. CTDOT pays more because most of the line is in Connecticut. The New Haven Line has three branches in Connecticut: the New Canaan Branch, Danbury Branch and Waterbury Branch. At New Haven, CTDOT runs two connecting services, the Shore Line East connecting service continues east to New London, and the Hartford Line service continues north to Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts.

Amtrak operates inter-city rail service along the New Haven and Hudson Lines. The New Haven Line is part of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor. Amtrak's Northeast Regional runs from New Rochelle to New Haven, while Stamford and New Haven are also served by the high-speed Acela Express. At New Haven, the New Haven Line connects to the Amtrak New Haven–Springfield Line. The Hudson Line is part of the Empire Corridor, and the Yonkers, Croton-Harmon, and Poughkeepsie stations are all served by Amtrak as well as Metro-North.

Freight trains operate over Metro-North lines, though the company itself does not operate freight services. The Hudson Line connects with the Oak Point Link and is the main route for freight to and from the Bronx and Long Island. Freight railroads CSX, CP Rail, P&W, and Housatonic Railroad have trackage rights on sections of the system.

 

West of the Hudson

Metro-North provides service west of the Hudson River on trains from Hoboken Terminal, New Jersey, jointly run with NJ Transit under contract. There are two branches: the Port Jervis Line and the Pascack Valley Line. The Port Jervis Line is accessed from two NJ Transit lines, the Main Line and the Bergen County Line.

The Port Jervis Line terminates in Port Jervis, New York, and the Pascack Valley line in Spring Valley, New York, in Orange and Rockland Counties, respectively. Trackage on the Port Jervis Line north of the Suffern Yard is leased from the Norfolk Southern Railway by the MTA, but NJ Transit owns all of the Pascack Valley Line, including the portion in Rockland County, New York.

Most stops for the Port Jervis and Pascack Valley Lines are in New Jersey, so NJ Transit provides most of the rolling stock and all the staff; Metro-North supplies some equipment. Metro-North equipment has been used on other NJ Transit lines on the Hoboken division.

All stations west of the Hudson River in New York are owned and operated by Metro-North, except Suffern, which is owned and operated by NJ Transit.

 

Northeast Corridor and New Haven Line in New Rochelle.

(Jim.henderson, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

West New York, moored at Beacon.

(Daniel Case, CC BY-SA 3.0 <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Connecting ferry service

In partnership with NY Waterway, Metro-North also provides ferry service across the Hudson River to Ossining station and Beacon station, with the Haverstraw–Ossining Ferry and Newburgh–Beacon Ferry respectively.

 

History

Predecessors

Most of the trackage east of the Hudson River and in New York State was under the control of the New York Central Railroad (NYC). The NYC initially operated three commuter lines, two of which ran into Grand Central Depot (now Grand Central Terminal). Metro-North's Harlem Line was initially a combination of trackage from the New York and Harlem Railroad and the Boston and Albany Railroad, running from Manhattan to Chatham, New York in Columbia County. At Chatham, passengers could transfer to long-distance trains on the Boston and Albany to Albany, Boston, Vermont, and Canada. On April 1, 1873, the New York and Harlem Railroad was leased by Cornelius Vanderbilt, who added the railroad to his complex empire of railroads, which were run by the NYC. Grand Central Depot, built in 1871, served as the southern terminus of NYC's Harlem and Hudson Divisions; it would be replaced by Grand Central Station in 1900, and by Grand Central Terminal in 1913. The Boston and Albany came under the ownership of NYC in 1914.

NYC's four-track Water Level Route paralleled the Hudson River, Erie Canal, and Great Lakes on a route from New York to Chicago via Albany. It was fast and popular due to the lack of any significant grades. The section between Grand Central and Peekskill, New York, the northernmost station in Westchester County, became known as the NYC's Hudson Division, with frequent commuter service in and out of Manhattan. Stations to the north of Peekskill, such as Poughkeepsie, were considered to be long-distance services. The other major commuter line was the Putnam Division running from 155th Street in upper Manhattan (later from Sedgwick Avenue in the Bronx) to Brewster, New York. Passengers would transfer to the IRT Ninth Avenue Line for midtown and lower Manhattan.

From the mid-19th century until 1969, the New Haven Line, including the New Canaan, Danbury, and Waterbury branches, was owned by the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad (NYNH&H). These branches were started in the 1830s with horse-drawn cars, later replaced by steam engines, on a route that connected Lower Manhattan to Harlem. Additional lines started in the mid-19th century included the New York and New Haven Railroad and the Hartford and New Haven Railroad, which provided routes to Hartford, Springfield, Massachusetts, and eventually Boston. The two roads merged in 1872 to become the NYNH&H, growing into the largest passenger and commuter carrier in New England. In the early 20th century, the NYNH&H came under the control of J.P. Morgan. Morgan's bankroll allowed the NYNH&H to modernize by upgrading steam power with both electric (along the New Haven Line) and diesel power (branches and lines to eastern and northern New England). The NYNH&H saw much profitability throughout the 1910s and 1920s until the Great Depression of the 1930s forced it into bankruptcy.

Commuter services west of the Hudson River, today's Port Jervis and Pascack Valley lines, were initially part of the Erie Railroad. The Port Jervis Line, built in the 1850s and 1860s, was originally part of the Erie's mainline from Jersey City to Buffalo, New York. The Pascack Valley Line was built by the New Jersey and New York Railroad, which became a subsidiary of the Erie. Trains that service Port Jervis formerly continued to Binghamton and Buffalo, New York (today used only by freight trains), while Pascack Valley service continued to Haverstraw, New York. In 1956, the Erie Railroad began coordinated service with rival Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, and in 1960 they formed the Erie Lackawanna. Trains were rerouted to the Lackawanna's Hoboken Terminal in 1956–1958.

 

Penn Central

Passenger rail in the United States began to falter after World War II. Commuter services historically had always been unprofitable, and were usually subsidized by long-distance passenger and freight services. As these profits disappeared, commuter services usually were the first to be affected. Many railroads began to gradually discontinue their commuter lines after the war. By 1958, the NYC had already suspended service on its Putnam Division, while the newly formed Erie Lackawanna, in an effort to make a successful merger, began to prune some of its commuter services. Most New Yorkers still chose the train as their primary means of commuting, making many of the other lines heavily patronized. Thus the NYC, the NYNH&H, and the Erie Lackawanna had to maintain service on these lines. Mergers between railroads were seen as a way to curtail these issues by combining capital and services and creating efficiencies.

In February 1965, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller and Connecticut Governor John N. Dempsey jointly suggested that operations of the New Haven Line, the New Haven Railroad's struggling commuter rail operation, be transferred to the New York Central Railroad as part of a plan to prevent the New Haven Railroad from going bankrupt. If the operational merger occurred, the proposed Metropolitan Commuter Transit Authority (MCTA; now Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or MTA) and the existing Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) would contract with New York Central to operate the New Haven Line to Grand Central Terminal. Due to growing debts, the railroad would have to cease operating passenger trains on the New Haven Line if nothing was done.  A joint report from both agencies, released in September of that year, recommended that the line be leased to New York Central for 99 years, with the MCTA and CTA acting as agents for both states. In October, the MCTA found that the New Haven Line's stations and infrastructure were even more decrepit than those of the LIRR. The New Haven Railroad's trustees initially opposed New York Central's takeover of the New Haven Line, as they felt that the $140 million offer for the New Haven Line was too low. After some discussion, the trustees decided to continue operating the New Haven Line, but only until June 1967.

In 1968, following the Erie Lackawanna's example, the NYC and its rival the Pennsylvania Railroad formed Penn Central Transportation with the hope of revitalizing their fortunes. In 1969 the bankrupt NYNH&H was also combined into Penn Central by the Interstate Commerce Commission. However, this merger eventually failed, due to large financial costs, government regulations, corporate rivalries, and lack of a formal merger plan. In 1970 Penn Central declared bankruptcy, at the time the largest corporate bankruptcy ever declared. The same year, the MTA also entered into a long-term lease of Penn Central's Hudson, Harlem, and New Haven Lines. Penn Central continued to operate the now-subsidized lines under contract to the MTA. In April 1970, Rockefeller proposed that the state take over the Hudson and Harlem Lines, and the next month, he signed a bond issue that provided $44.4 million in funding to these lines.

The MTA and ConnDOT took over ownership of the New Haven Line in January 1971. In May 1972, the MTA also gained ownership of the Hudson and Harlem Lines. Penn Central continued to operate all three routes under contract. As part of its plan to modernize the commuter lines, the MTA ordered high-speed "Cosmopolitan" railcars for the New Haven Line as well as for the Hudson and Harlem Lines. After a series of delays and derailments in mid-1972, which involved Penn Central trains near Grand Central Terminal, Chairman Ronan expressed his disapproval of the way Penn Central was running its railroads. He said that the proportion of trains running on schedule had declined after Penn Central had inherited the Hudson, Harlem, and New Haven Lines in 1968.

 

Conrail

In 1976, Congress awarded the MTA "temporary" funding so the LIRR and Penn Central commuter routes could be handed over to local private operators.  The bankrupt Penn Central's commuter routes were taken over by Conrail, an entity created by the federal government, the same year. Many of the other Northeastern railroads, including the Erie Lackawanna, followed Penn Central into bankruptcy, and so they had been merged into Conrail. However, the handover to private owners did not happen.

In March 1981, the administration of President Ronald Reagan suggested that struggling Conrail commuter operations across five states be transferred to state agencies. At the time, Conrail was being floated by the federal government as a private for-profit freight-only carrier. Even with state subsidies, the federal government did not want Conrail to take on the operating costs of the commuter lines, which it was relieved from by the Northeast Rail Service Act of 1981. Thus, it became essential that state-owned agencies both operate and subsidize their commuter services.

Over the next few years commuter lines under the control of Conrail were gradually taken over by state agencies such as the newly formed NJ Transit in New Jersey, the established SEPTA in southeastern Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority in Boston.  In March 1982, the MTA announced it would take over the Harlem, Hudson, and New Haven Lines as long as there was no extra operating cost involved. The MTA and ConnDOT officially took control of the Harlem, Hudson and New Haven Lines on January 1, 1983 and merged them into the Metro-North Commuter Railroad.

 

MTA operation and rebrand

Metro-North took over the former Erie Lackawanna services west of the Hudson and north of the New Jersey state line. Since those lines are physically connected to NJ Transit, operations were contracted to NJ Transit with Metro-North subsidizing the service and supplying equipment.

In preparation for the takeover, Metro-North was created as a division of the MTA, with Peter Stangl as president. Once under the MTA's control, the agency planned to phase in capital improvements over the following five years. As part of the transition, the MTA needed to negotiate new labor contracts with the 17 unions representing 5,000 Conrail employees who would become MTA employees and had to negotiate the transfer of most of Conrail's assets.

Much work was needed in reorganization, as significant business success would not appear for at least two decades, following the faltering railroad industry in the 1970s. Conrail and later Metro-North had decided to trim whatever services they felt were unnecessary. A significant portion of the old New York Central Central Harlem line between Millerton and Chatham, New York was abandoned by Conrail, leaving northeastern Dutchess and Columbia counties with no rail transportation. Most commuter lines were kept in service although they were in much need of repair.

 

Strike

On March 7, 1983, after labor negotiations between the MTA and the United Transportation Union (UTU) broke off, Metro-North employees went on strike. Commuters were left to carpool or use shuttle buses running to subway stations in the Bronx. Metro-North wanted to eliminate minimum staffing requirements and wanted the complete freedom to assign crews–a demand that the employees would not agree to. This was the first strike to shut down the New Haven, Harlem, and Hudson at the same time since January 1961. The UTU also went on strike against NJ Transit, which took over Conrail lines in New Jersey, and against SEPTA in Philadelphia. Two weeks into the strike, Metro-North President Peter Stangl estimated that it lost $80,000 a week due to the strike. The chairman of the MTA's finance committee, Stephen Berger, feared that Metro-North would lose 5% of its pre-strike ridership of 90,000–costing the railroad $1.3 million.

Richard Ravitch, the MTA Chairman, asked President Reagan to seek legislation to place the dispute under the law of New York State. Even though Metro-North was a state agency, the workers remained under federal law because Conrail was a federal agency. Reagan had turned down a request by Governor Mario Cuomo to intervene, but indicated that he would listen if a congressionally approved proposal was issued. The strike lasted six weeks, and ended on April 18 when the two sides agreed to binding arbitration.

 

Initial investments

The first major project undertaken by Metro-North was the extension of the third-rail electrification on the Harlem line from North White Plains to a new station at Brewster North (since renamed Southeast). This was completed in 1984. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, all wayside signals that did not protect switches and interlockings north of Grand Central were removed and replaced by modern cab signaling.

In October 1998, the New York State Department of Transportation announced that the Newburgh–Beacon Shuttle would be developed in conjunction with Metro-North, running from the Beacon station on the Hudson Line to the Newburgh park-and-ride on Route 17K.

 

Recent initiatives

Metro-North spent the better part of its early days updating and repairing its infrastructure. Stations, track, and rolling stock all needed to be repaired, renovated, or replaced. The railroad succeeded and by the mid 90s gained both respect and monetary success, according to the MTA's website.[citation needed] 2006 was the best year for the division, with a 97.8% rate of on-time trains, record ridership (76.9 million people), and a passenger satisfaction rating of 92%. In December 2017, the MTA announced that the Metro-North Railroad stations at White Plains, Harlem–125th Street, Crestwood, Port Chester, and Riverdale, would receive a complete overhaul as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative and would be entirely closed for up to 6 months. Updates would include cellular service, Wi-Fi, USB charging stations, interactive service advisories, and maps.

The Harlem and Hudson lines and the Park Avenue mainline to Grand Central were previously owned by Midtown TDR Ventures LLC, who bought them from the corporate successors to Penn Central. The MTA had a lease extending to the year 2274 and an option to buy starting in 2017. The MTA exercised their option to buy what was now Argent Ventures' rail assets on November 13, 2018. Under the terms of the deal, the MTA purchased Grand Central Terminal, as well as the Hudson Line from Grand Central to a point 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Poughkeepsie, and the Harlem Line from Grand Central to Dover Plains.

 

An M7 train at Bronxville on the Harlem Line.

(Trxr4kds at English Wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Infrastructure

East of Hudson

Propulsion systems
Most services running into Grand Central Terminal are electrically powered.

Diesel trains into Grand Central use General Electric P32AC-DM electro-diesel locomotives capable of switching to a pure electric mode. These locomotives have contact shoes compatible with Metro-North's under-running third rail power distribution system. Shoreliner series coaches are used in push-pull operation.

On the Hudson Line, local trains between Grand Central and Croton–Harmon are powered by third rail. Through trains to Poughkeepsie are diesel powered and do not require a change of locomotive at Croton-Harmon. The Harlem Line has third rail from Grand Central Terminal to Southeast and trains are powered by diesel north to Wassaic. At most times, passengers between Southeast and Wassaic must change at Southeast to a diesel train powered by Brookville BL20-GH locomotives. Electric service on the Hudson and Harlem lines uses M3 and M7 MU cars.

The New Haven Line is unique in that trains use both 750 V DC from a third rail and 12.5 kV AC from overhead catenary. The line from Grand Central Terminal to Pelham uses third rail, while the section from Pelham, New York east to New Haven Union Station, which is 58 miles (93 km), uses catenary. Multi-system M8 railcars equipped with third rail shoes and pantographs are used for electric service on the line.

The New Canaan Branch also uses catenary. The Danbury Branch was electrified, but became a diesel line in 1961. The Waterbury Branch, the only east-of-Hudson Metro-North service which has no direct service to Grand Central, is diesel only.

Power is collected from the bottom of the third rail as opposed to the top, used by other third rail systems, including the Long Island Rail Road and New York City Subway. This system is known as the Wilgus-Sprague third rail, and the SEPTA Market–Frankford Line in Philadelphia and Metro-North are the only two systems in North America that use it. It allows the third rail to be completely insulated from above, thus decreasing the chances of a person being electrocuted by coming in contact with the rail. It also reduces the impact of icing in winter.

 

A GE P32AC-DM locomotive arriving at Ossining.

(Bebo2good1 at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Signaling and safety appliances

The Hudson, Harlem and New Haven lines and the New Canaan branch and all passenger rolling stock is equipped with cab signaling, which displays the appropriate block signal in the engineer's cab. All rolling stock is equipped with Automatic Train Control (ATC), which enforces the speed dictated by the cab signal by a penalty brake application should the engineer fail to obey it. There are no intermediate wayside signals between interlockings: operation is solely by cab signal. Wayside signals remain at interlockings. These are a special type of signal, a go, a slow or a stop signal. They do not convey information about traffic in the blocks ahead – the cab signal conveys block information.

Metro-North began upgrading its Operations Control Center in Grand Central Terminal in 2008. All control hardware was replaced and software upgrades were performed. The new OCC at Grand Central opened over the weekend of July 18, 2010.

 

Metro-North maintenance train going through Beacon on the Hudson Line.

(Daniel Case, CC BY-SA 3.0 <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

West of Hudson

See also: NJ Transit Rail Operations
Most of the rolling stock on west-of-Hudson lines consists of Metro-North owned and marked Comet V cars, although occasionally other NJ Transit (NJT) cars are used as the two railroads pool equipment. The trains are also usually handled by EMD GP40FH-2, GP40PH-2, F40PH-3C, Alstom PL42AC, or Bombardier ALP-45DP locomotives, although any Metro-North or NJ Transit diesel can show up. Metro-North owned and marked equipment operated by NJ Transit can also be seen on other NJ Transit lines.

 

Rolling stock

The Metro-North Railroad uses an electric fleet of M3A, M7A, and M8 electric multiple units. Multiple diesel locomotives and push-pull coaches are in use as well.

Although Metro-North uses many abbreviations (MNCR, MNR, MN, etc.) the only official reporting marks registered and recognized on AEI scanner tags is 'MNCW'. Rolling stock owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation bears the CTDOT seal and either the New Haven ("NH") logo or the MTA logo and is identified using the reporting mark 'CNDX'.

(See Metro-North Railroad rolling stock below)

 

Fare policies

Metro-North offers many different ticket types and prices depending on the frequency of travel and distance of the ride. While the fare policies of the east of Hudson and west of Hudson divisions are essentially the same, west of Hudson trains are operated by NJ Transit using its ticketing system.

 

East of Hudson

Tickets may be bought from a ticket office at stations, ticket vending machines (TVMs), online through the "WebTicket" program or through apps for iOS and Android devices, or on the train. Monthly tickets may be bought through the MTA's "Mail&Ride" program where monthly passes are delivered by mail. There is a discount for buying tickets online and through Mail&Ride. A surcharge is added if a ticket is purchased on a train.

Ticket types available include One-way, Round-trip (two One-way tickets), 10-trip, Weekly (unlimited travel for one calendar week), Monthly (unlimited travel for one calendar month), and special student and disabled fare tickets. MetroCards are available on the reverse side of the Round-trip, Weekly, and Monthly tickets.

All tickets to/from Manhattan (Grand Central Terminal and Harlem–125th Street) are distinguished as being peak or off-peak. Peak fares, substantially higher than off-peak, apply on weekdays to travel to Manhattan on trains that arrive in Grand Central between 6 AM and 10 AM, and to travel from Manhattan on trains that leave Grand Central between 6 AM and 9 AM and 4 PM and 8 PM. Note that peak fares do not apply to travel to Manhattan on trains that arrive in Grand Central during the afternoon/evening rush hour. Off-peak fares are charged at all other times on weekdays, and off-peak fares are charged all day Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. Tickets for travel outside Manhattan, including tickets for travel to/from the Bronx, are called Intermediate tickets and are not subject to peak fares.

Metro-North stations are split between 14 zones in New York state. In Connecticut, the fare structure is more complex due to the many branches on the New Haven Line. Generally, these zones correspond to express stops on the lines and from "blocks" of service within the schedules.

In 2017, it was announced that the MetroCard fare payment system, used on New York City-area rapid transit and bus systems, would be phased out and replaced by OMNY, a contactless fare payment system. Fare payment would be made using Apple Pay, Google Wallet, debit/credit cards with near-field communication enabled, or radio-frequency identification cards. As part of the implementation of OMNY, the MTA also plans to use the system in the Long Island Rail Road and Metro-North Railroad.

 

Metro North Comet IA commuter railcar at Port Jervis station in 2002.

(Sturmovik, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Metro-North Railroad rolling stock

History

When the Metropolitan Transportation Authority began to subsidize commuter rail systems of Penn Central Railroad and Erie Lackawanna Railway in the early-1970s, they inherited equipment of the former New York Central Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad and Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, some of which dated back to the early 20th Century. However, they also began to operate variations of the new M1 railcar which was designated as the "M1A." The next new fleet of EMUs came with the M2s, which replaced Pullman 4400-series cars dating back to the early 1920s to 1954 from 1973 to 1977. With the expansion of electrified territory, 142 M3As were ordered, arriving between 1984 and 1986. Two additional small orders would supplement the existing fleet; 54 M4s arrived in late 1987, and in 1994 48 M6s arrived. Many diesel locomotives inherited from those railroads, however, were used as recently as the early 21st Century. The M1As were replaced between 2004 and 2007 with the arrival of the 336 M7As. In order to replace the M2, M4, and M6s on the New Haven Line and to respond to increasing ridership on that line 405 M8s were ordered. In 2016, in response to ridership higher than initially expected on the New Haven Line, up to 94 additional M8s will be built to meet that line's needs.

 

EMD GP35R. (Pi.1415926535, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

EMD GP40FH-2M. (MTAEnthusiast10, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

EMD GP40PH-2M. (Fan Railer, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

EMD F40PH-3C. (Fan Railer, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Brookville BL20GH. (Lexcie, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Brookville BL14CG. (Jim.henderson, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

EMD GP40-3H. (Interstate Railfan, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

A Siemens Charger in use by Caltrans.(Pi.1415926535, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

 

Active rolling stock

Locomotives

Builder and model Build year Year rebuilt Fleet numbers Power Notes
EMD GP35R 1964–1965 1991–1992; 2013–2017, 2019 101–108 (8 units) 2,500 horsepower (1,900 kW) Work locomotive onlyRebuilt by Brookville Equipment
EMD GP40FH-2M 1966–1970 1992–1993; 2007 4900–4905 (6 units) 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) Operated by NJ Transit for West of Hudson services
EMD GP40PH-2M 1968 1992; 2007 4906 (1 unit) 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) Operated by NJ Transit for West of Hudson services
EMD F40PH-3C 1976–1981 2009–2010 4907–4914 (8 units) 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) Operated by NJ Transit for West of Hudson services
GE P32AC-DM 1995–2001 2012–2015 201–231 (31 units) 3,200 horsepower (2,400 kW) Dual mode for operation into Grand Central Terminal. To be replaced by Siemens SC-42DM. 201–227 are in Metro-North paint scheme. 228–231 are owned by ConnDOT, painted in the New Haven McGinnis scheme. 208 is wrapped in "Beach Ball" heritage scheme, commemorating Metro-North's 40th anniversary. 201 is wrapped in "Conrail" heritage scheme, commemorating Metro-North's 40th anniversary. 211 is wrapped in “New York Central Lightning Stripe” heritage scheme, commemorating Metro-North's 40th anniversary. 217 is wrapped in "Penn Central Blue and Yellow" heritage scheme, commemorating Metro North's 40th anniversary.
Brookville BL20GH 2008 2017– 110–115, 125–130 (12 units) 2,250 horsepower (1,680 kW) Used on branch line shuttles and work trains. All being rebuilt as BL20GHM110–115 are in Metro-North paint scheme125–130 are owned by ConnDOT, painted in the CT Rail scheme.
Brookville BL14CG 2009 401–402 (2 units) 2,000 horsepower (1,500 kW) Used on work trains for East Side Access project. Replaced GP8 and GP9.
EMD GP40-3H 1971 2016-2018 6698-6699(2 units) 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) Leased from CT Rail until the remaining BL20GHs are rebuilt. Limited to branch line shuttle service. 2 units leased with option for third

Future locomotives

Builder and model Build year Fleet numbers Power Notes
Siemens SC-42DM Charger 2023–2027 (33 units) 4,400 horsepower (3,300 kW) Dual-mode locomotive; can run on electric power in all third-rail electrified sections, and on diesel power elsewhere. Options to purchase 32 additional MNRR locomotives, along with 20 locomotives for ConnDOT, 25 for NYSDOT, and 60 for LIRR.

In December 2020, the Metro-North board approved a Federal Transit Administration funded $334.9 million contract for Siemens to manufacture and test 19 dual-mode locomotives with an option for an additional eight more. 19 of the 27 dual-mode Locomotives ordered have already been fully approved for $231.6 million with the other eight at a cost of $82.1 million. In addition, the contract also includes capital spare parts for $12.9 million, a training simulator for $1.5 million, test equipment for $3 million, and extended warranty for $3.6 million. This contract includes 144 in total option locomotives with 66 additional locomotives for Long Island Rail Road in an alternate configuration, 32 additional locomotives for Metro-North, 20 for the Connecticut Department of Transportation, and 26 locomotives in an alternate configuration for Amtrak/NYSDOT. These dual modes would be able to work on both Amtrak and Metro-North signal systems and will be able to sustain 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) in service.

 

Bombardier
Comet II. (RoySmith, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Bombardier
Shoreliner I. (samsebeskazal, CC BY-SA 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Bombardier
Shoreliner II. (Metropolitan Transportation Authority of the State of New York, CC BY 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Alstom
Comet V. (MTAEnthusiast10, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Push-pull coaches

These cars are non-powered.

Builder and model Build year Year Rebuilt Fleet Numbers Number Active Notes
Bombardier Comet II 1983, 1987 2009 6125, 6127, 6129, 6131, 6134, 6136, 6138, 6140, 6142–6149, 6176, 6178, 6180 19 Formerly used for West of Hudson service, transferred in 2009. Not rebuilt until transferred to East of Hudson.
Bombardier Shoreliner I 1983 1995–1996; 2008–2009 6101, 6103, 6105, 6107, 6109, 6150–6160, 6162, 6164, 6166, 6201, 6203, 6205, 6207, 6209, 6250–6260, 6262, 6264, 6266, 6268 39
Bombardier Shoreliner II 987–1988 2008–2009 6111, 6113, 6115, 6117, 6119, 6121, 6123, 6161, 6163, 6165, 6167–6175, 6177, 6179, 6182, 6184, 6186, 6190, 6211, 6213, 6215, 6217, 6219, 6223, 6225, 6227, 6229, 6230, 6232, 6234, 6236, 6238, 6240, 6270, 6272, 6274, 6276, 6278 45 6188 wrecked and retired after 2013 accident at Spuyten Duyvil
Bombardier Shoreliner III 1991–2002 NA 6301-63106330-6344, 6346-6362 6364, 6366, 6368, 6370, 6372, 6374 48 6345 wrecked and retired after 2013 accident at Spuyten Duyvil.
Bombardier Shoreliner IV 1996–2002 NA 6221, 6222, 6311–6320 57 6222, 6288, and 6440 wrecked and retired after 2013 accident at Spuyten Duyvil.
Alstom Comet V 2004 NA 6700–6714, 6750–6799 65 Operated by NJ Transit for West of Hudson service.
Budd club/lounge 1949 1-3 3 Only used on special trains, ex-Lackawanna and New York Central.

Budd M3A. (MTAEnthusiast10, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Bombardier
M7A. (MTAEnthusiast10, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Kawasaki
M8. (Bebo2good1, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Kawasaki
M9A. (MTATransitFan, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Electric multiple units

M3A and M7A cars draw power from 650 V DC third rail with under-running contact shoes. M8 draw power from third rail, both over- and under-running, or 12.5 kV 60 Hz and 25 kV 60 Hz AC catenary.

 

Builder and model Build year Year rebuilt Fleet numbers NumberActive Notes
Budd M3A 1983–1985 2008–2015 8000–8141 140
Bombardier M7A 2004–2006 N/A 4000–4335 334 4333 burned and destroyed in 2013 accident in Valhalla.
Kawasaki M8 2009–2015 N/A 9100–9421, 9460, 9462, 9464, 9466, 9468, 9470, 9472, 9474, 9476 (unpowered single cars) 9500–9519, 9560, 9562, 9564, 9566, 9568, 9570, 9572, 9574, 9576, 9578, 9580, 9582, 9584, 9586, 9588, 9590 (unpowered single cars), 9600–9623 471 The order of 60 additional cars, and 34 additional cars with an option order was announced in 2016. Replaced all M2/M4/M6s. Shared with CDOT for use on Shore Line East services.

Possible future electric multiple units

M3A and M7A cars draw power from 650 V DC third rail with under-running contact shoes. M8 draw power from third rail, both over- and under-running, or 12.5 kV 60 Hz and 25 kV 60 Hz AC catenary.

Builder and model Build year Year rebuilt Fleet numbers NumberActive Notes
Budd M3A 1983–1985 2008–2015 8000–8141 140
Bombardier M7A 2004–2006 N/A 4000–4335 334 4333 burned and destroyed in 2013 accident in Valhalla.
Kawasaki M8 2009–2015 N/A 9100–9421, 9460, 9462, 9464, 9466, 9468, 9470, 9472, 9474, 9476 (unpowered single cars), 9500–9519, 9560, 9562, 9564, 9566, 9568, 9570, 9572, 9574, 9576, 9578, 9580, 9582, 9584, 9586, 9588, 9590 (unpowered single cars), 9600–9623 471 The order of 60 additional cars, and 34 additional cars with an option order was announced in 2016. Replaced all M2/M4/M6s. Shared with CDOT for use on Shore Line East services.

EMD FP10. (Adam E. Moreira, CC BY-SA 3.0 <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/>, via Wikimedia Commons)

ALCO RS-3m. (Mike Powell, CC BY-SA 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

EMD FL9. (Mike Powell, CC BY-SA 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

GE P40DC. (Milkyoreo at English Wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

Retired rolling stock

Locomotives

Roster rolling stock manufactured from 1946 to the present.

Builder and model Built Retired Heritage Successor Power Notes
Brookville BL06 2000 2012 Metro-North BL20GH 600 HP Used as a yard switcher
EMD FP10 1946–1949 (rebuilt in late 1970s) 2008 GM&O; MBTA P32AC-DM, BL20GH 1750 hp Original Gulf Mobile & Ohio F3s, later MBTA; rebuilt F3s. 412 in service at Adirondack Scenic Railroad as 1502; 413 preserved at Danbury Railway Museum.
EMD GP9 1956 2009 New York Central Brookville BL14CG 1400 hp Work Locomotive; 750 is stored at Croton-Harmon
EMD GP8 1957 2010 New York Central Brookville BL14CG 1750 hp Work Locomotive only. 543 is used during the winter to melt ice off the third rail. Reactivated for switcher service in 2012 after retirement 2010. At Croton-Harmon retired; in long term storage
ALCO RS-3m 1956 1990s New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad 1200 hp Preserved at Danbury Railway Museum
EMD FL9 1956–1959 1998–2002, 2009 New York, New Haven and Hartford; Penn Central; Conrail P32AC-DM, BL20GH, Amtrak P40DC 1800 hp Dual-mode locomotive with third rail shoe for running in Park Ave Tunnel - in later years was relegated to 100% diesel work on branch lines. Several have been donated to railroad museums.
GE B23-7 1976 1993 Conrail GP35R 2250 hp Work Locomotive; ex-Conrail. Traded Back to GE on expiration of lease for the GP35Rs.
GE U34CH 1978 1994 Erie Lackawanna GP40PH-2 3600 hp Used for the Port Jervis Line. Rebuilt Chicago and North Western U30C; Scrapped
Republic Locomotive FL9AC 1992 2005 New York New Haven and Hartford; LIRR P32AC-DM 3000 hp Ex. LIRR; rebuilt EMD FL9s. All scrapped.
GE P40DC 1993 2009 Amtrak BL20GH 4000 hp Amtrak-leased units to replace FL9s. Retained Amtrak paint and logo. Were used on Danbury, Waterbury and Wassaic branch lines. Amtrak 833, 834, 836, 838, 840, 841, 842, and 843. When Metro-North returned these units, they were sold to CDOT for Shore Line East. All rebuilt and now used on Hartford Line.

Budd RDC. (Mike Powell, CC BY-SA 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Pullman 4400. (DanTD, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Pullman ACMU. (Sturmovik at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Budd SPV-2000. (Pi.1415926535, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Budd M1-A. (User:Scrabbleship at the English-language Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0 <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Budd M2. (JayMan, CC BY-SA 3.0 <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Tokyu Car M4. (William McMorris, Attribution, via Wikimedia Commons)

Morrison-Knudsen M6. (R38R40, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons)

Self-Propelled Cars

Builder and model Built Retired Heritage Successor Power Notes
Budd RDC 1950–1956 1991 New York Central; New York New Haven and Hartford P32AC-DM; Shoreliner coaches 550 hp Used on Port Jervis Line and Waterbury Branch. New Haven 32 and 47 are at Danbury Railway Museum; 47 was stripped for parts for 32. 32 is operational. Metro-North demotored certain units for push pull coaches
Pullman 4400 954 1983 New York, New Haven and Hartford Budd M2s 650 V DC Third Rail under running 11 kV 25 Hz AC catenary Ex-New Haven Railroad; ran on New Haven Line; 3 units are at Danbury Railway Museum (One owned by private individual); Replaced by M2s
Pullman ACMU 1962–1965 2004 New York Central Bombardier M7As 650 V DC third rail under-running Ex-New York Central; electrical multiple units; replaced by M7As. 1128 and 1171 are at Danbury Railway Museum.
Budd SPV-2000 1978–1981 1996 Amtrak/CDOT, MTA P32AC-DM; Shoreliner coaches 550 hp Owned by MTA and CDOT (CDOT units had Amtrak logos in addition to State of CT seal.) Used on branch lines of Metro-North and Amtrak's Springfield line. CDOT de-powered their units for Shore Line East. Those have since been retired in favor of Ex-VRE Mafersa push-pull coaches. MNCR 293 is preserved at Connecticut Eastern Railroad Museum in Willimantic, CT. Several CDOT-owned de-powered units were sent to New Orleans for hurricane-standby duty.
Budd M1A 1971–1973 2009 Penn Central Bombardier M7As 650 V DC third rail under-running Replaced by M7As
Budd M2 1972–1977, rebuilt 1992–1994, 2006 2018 Penn Central Kawasaki M8s 650 V DC third rail under-running & 12.5 kV 60 Hz AC catenary Largely replaced by M8s in 2015, all replaced in 2018. Pair 8706-8707 has been preserved by the Danbury Railway Museum.
Tokyu Car M4 1987–1988 2015 Metro-North/ ConnDOT Kawasaki M8s 650 V DC third rail under-running & 12.5 kV 60 Hz AC catenary Replaced by M8s, last run of M4/M6 equipment June 26, 2015.
Morrison-Knudsen M6 1994 2015 Metro-North/ ConnDOT Kawasaki M8s 650 V DC third rail under-running & 12.5 kV 60 Hz AC catenary Replaced by M8s, last run of M4/M6 equipment June 26, 2015, last new build DC traction railcars in North America

Coaches

Builder and model Built Retired Heritage Successor Power Notes
Various stainless-steel coaches and club cars Various years 1985 New York New Haven and Hartford, New York Central Shoreliner I and II Cars Non-Powered Disposed of or sold through the 1980s as new equipment came on line.
Pullman Standard 4800 series coaches 1950s 1958 SEMTA Shoreliner I and II Cars Non-Powered Detroit's commuter carrier.
Morrison-Knudsen Boise Budds 1982 1998 Shoreliner III cars Non-Powered Rebuilt Budd RDCs that had their Engines Removed and used as Push-Pull cars; Original MBTA then sold to VRE in 1986 then VRE sold them to Metro-North. 2 units sit on a deadline in Croton-Harmon; Rest sold to Caltrain in 2000, and are now used by the Grand Canyon Railway since 2005.
GE/Avco/Vickers Comet IA 1978 2005 Metro North Alstom Comet V Non-Powered Two cabs and eight trailers were built from surplus shells from the Arrow III EMU for NJDOT. They saw use primarily on the Port Jervis Line. Replaced by Comet V cars.
Bombardier Comet III 1991 1998/2008 New Jersey Transit Alstom Comet V Non-Powered Sold to NJT in 1998, sold back to Metro-North in 2008. Now converted for use on LaserTrain.

Bar cars

Metro-North Railroad was the last commuter railroad in the United States to operate bar cars-- electric MUs equipped with bars that served alcohol. The M2 bar cars were delivered in 1974, and Metro-North has not ordered new ones. The last train which included a bar car left Grand Central for New Haven at 7:34 PM on Friday, May 9, 2014. While there is talk of retrofitting M8 cars with bars, no decision has been reached and no money allocated. However, on September 13, 2016, Connecticut Governor Dannel Malloy announced that the state would be buying another 60 M8 cars, 10 being "bar cars". However, the idea was abandoned due to cost and train capacity concerns, as well as Metro-North not being willing to handle the bar themselves, wishing for an outside company to run the operation itself.