California Western Railroad No. 45 (builder No. 58045 of 1924), is a 2-8-2 "Mikado" locomotive still in use on the Skunk Train.

(Baldwinlocomotiveworks - R.A. Sallinen III, CC BY-SA 3.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons)


Skunk Train logo.


Skunk Train redirects here.

The California Western Railroad (reporting mark CWR), AKA Mendocino Railway popularly called the Skunk Train, is a rail freight and heritage railroad transport railway in Mendocino County, California, United States, running from the railroad's headquarters in the coastal town of Fort Bragg to the interchange with the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at Willits.

The CWR runs steam and diesel-powered trains and rail motor cars through Redwood forests along Pudding Creek and the Noyo River. Along the way, the tracks cross some 30 single bridges and trestles and pass through two deep mountain tunnels. The halfway point, short of Northspur, is a popular meal and beverage spot for the railroad's passengers.



The railroad was originally built by the Fort Bragg Redwood Company as the Fort Bragg Railroad in 1885 to carry coast redwood logs from the dense forests at Glenela (Glen Blair) to a newly built lumber mill located 6.6 miles (10.6 km) to the west at coastal Fort Bragg. Fort Bragg Redwood Company was incorporated into the new Union Lumber Company in 1891; railroad ownership remained with the parent lumber company until 1969. Chinese tunnel builders completed 1,184-foot (361 m) Tunnel No. 1 from Pudding Creek to the Noyo River in 1893. Rails had been extended up the Noyo River to Alpine by 1904 when passenger service began with a stagecoach connection to the inland town of Willits. On July 1, 1905, the railroad was renamed the California Western Railroad & Navigation Company and shipped lumber on a fleet of steam schooners, first with wooden hulls and later with steel, until shipboard transportation of lumber ended in 1940.


California Western Railroad gas railcar M100. May 1972.

(National Archives at College Park, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)


Rails were gradually extended up the Noyo River headwall with a 3.3 percent grade and five 33 degree horseshoe curves with a railway distance of 6.5 miles (10.5 km) to climb 932 feet (284 m) over the straight-line distance of 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from Soda Springs to the summit. Completion of 795-foot (242 m) tunnel No. 2 on December 11, 1911 allowed interchange connection with the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at Willits, 40 rail miles (64 km) from Fort Bragg.

The rail connection to Fort Bragg was very popular for passengers traveling to and from San Francisco. Union Lumber Company selected premium grade clear redwood lumber (without knots) to build a Tyrolean Alps-style depot in 1916 where passengers changed trains at Willits. A Pullman car began operating between Fort Bragg and San Francisco in May, 1921; and this steam passenger train continued operating in addition to the Skunk railbus schedule until November, 1929.

In 1916 a 17.6-mile (28.3 km) logging branch line was built northward along the Pacific coast from Fort Bragg to the Ten Mile River and up the middle fork of the river to Camp 6. A 4.4-mile (7.1 km) branch extended up the north fork of the Ten Mile River to Clark Fork Landing. Trains brought logs from the Ten Mile River to the Fort Bragg sawmill until the rails were replaced by a road for logging trucks in 1949. Much of the former railroad grade between Fort Bragg and the Ten Mile River is presently used as a MacKerricher State Park coastal trail; and an unused trestle is visible from California State Route 1 on the beach at the mouth of Pudding Creek. The original rail line to Glen Blair operated as a branch line from Glen Blair Junction at the west portal of tunnel No. 1 until dismantled in 1942.

On December 19, 1947, the railroad name was shortened to the California Western Railroad. In 1952, the railroad retired all of its steam locomotives in favor for diesel power. On September 26, 1964 westbound railcar M-80, carrying 32 members of San Mateo Masonic Lodge No. 226 on a sightseeing excursion, ran past its scheduled meeting place to collide head-on with eastbound railcar M-100, carrying 41 members of the Aircraft Pilot's Club of Oakland. The incident sent nine of the westbound occupants to the local hospital with serious injuries. Union Lumber and its California Western Railroad came under the ownership of the various lumber producers, including Boise Cascade (1969), and later Georgia-Pacific Corporation (G-P). A January 1970, derailment on the horseshoe curves destroyed diesel locomotives 51, 52 and 54. The engineer and fireman were able to jump clear when the air brakes failed on a downgrade train. G-P initially leased the CWR's operations to Kyle Railways, but in June 1987 the CWR was sold to the Kyle Railways subsidiary Mendocino Coast Railway. Mendocino Coast Railway continued to operate the CWR under the California Western name. No longer able to make a profit when the G-P mill began to reduce operations and finally closed altogether, Kyle Railways opted to sell the financially starved CWR. On December 17, 2003 the California Western Railroad was rescued when it was bought by the Sierra Railroad. The Skunk Train is owned and operated by Mendocino Railway, a subsidiary of the Sierra Railroad.


Map of the California Western Railroad.

(Calton, CC BY-SA 3.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons)



Milepost Feature Notes
0 Fort Bragg depot built in 1924
1.0 Pudding Creek this pond was used as a water supply for the sawmill hydraulic debarker
3.4 Glen Blair Junction 1,122-foot (342 m) Tunnel #1 (currently closed)
6.6 South Fork river gravel was collected here for use as track ballast
7.3 Rockpit another source of track ballast
9.0 Ranch Union Lumber Company raised beef and mutton here to feed their woods crews
10.0 Redwood Lodge site of a resort destroyed by fire in 1963
12.7 Grove
15.0 Camp 3 a logging camp
16.0 Camp 4 a logging camp
16.4 Camp Noyo operated by Boy Scouts of America
18.1 Alpine site of a hotel, school, and post office from 1905 until destroyed by fire in 1919
19.0 Camp Mendocino operated by the Boys and Girls Club of San Francisco
20.0 Camp 7 a logging camp
20.5 Noyo Lodge
21.3 Northspur wye for turning trains
23.9 Irmulco site of the Irvine & Muir Lumber Company town from 1908 to 1927
26.8 Shake City site of a roofing shake manufacturing facility destroyed by fire in the 1950s
27.7 Burbeck
28.7 Soda Springs horseshoe curves
30.4 Clare Mill horseshoe curve
32.6 Crowley horseshoe curve
33.8 Crater horseshoe curve
35.4 Summit elevation 1,740 feet (530 m) in 795-foot (242 m) Tunnel #2
37.5 Rodgers California State Route 20 grade crossing
38.6 Sage Spur sawmill
40.0 Willits historic redwood Tyrolean Alps-style depot

Freight traffic

The railroad owned 199 freight cars in 1912, including 156 flatcars for logs and lumber, six tank cars for locomotive fuel oil, three boxcars, a stock car, and some ballast cars. California Western leased steel freight cars from other railroads when these wooden cars became unsuitable for interchange service. Most of the old wooden cars were scrapped when the Ten Mile River branch was dismantled in 1949, but a few remained in use for maintenance of way service and to move lumber around the Fort Bragg sawmill yard.

In the late 1980s, the railroad's freight redwood lumber traffic rapidly declined. Georgia-Pacific gradually shifted lumber shipments to more flexible highway trucks until the Northwestern Pacific Railroad (North Coast Railroad Authority) was embargoed and shut-down from Willits to the California Northern Railroad and Union Pacific mainline connection near the SF Bay Area. By 1996, before the NWP embargo, CWR lumber shipments were less than 500 cars per year and passenger service became the line's main source of revenue. All freight service was discontinued in 2001, and the Federal Railroad Administration's emergency order effectively cut the CWR off from the national rail network.


Skunk Train M300 at Willits in June of 1970.

(Drew Jacksich from San Jose, CA, The Republic of California, CC BY-SA 2.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons, cropped)


Skunk Train

Gas-powered, self-propelled, passenger railcars were added in 1925; and, after Pullman service was discontinued, CWR steam passenger trains ran only when the motorcars were out of service for maintenance. The passenger coaches were scrapped in 1949. The motorcars were nicknamed "Skunks" because people said, "You can smell 'em before you can see 'em." In 1965 the line reintroduced summer steam passenger service between Fort Bragg and Willits with "Super Skunk" Baldwin-built steam locomotive No. 45 pulling four former Erie Lackawanna Railway 72-foot (22 m) Stillwell coaches built in 1926. That train was discontinued in 2001, then revived in September 2006. No.45 continues to power excursion trains from Fort Bragg, California as far as Northspur, California, the CWR's midpoint, on selected weekends summer to early autumn.

Without the considerable revenue lumber and general merchandise freight once contributed to the bottom line, maintaining the railway through such rugged terrain is a major undertaking, both logistically and financially, and service is not always available for the full trip from Fort Bragg to Willits, California. However, shorter trips to intermediate points usually run year-round.


Tunnel No. 1 closures

Beginning April 11, 2013, the railroad was in a crisis following the partial collapse of Tunnel No. 1 which buried nearly 50 feet (15 m) of its 1,200 feet (370 m) of track under rocks and soil, the third major collapse in the over 100-year-old tunnel's history. Without sufficient cash reserves to finance the excavation the railroad announced a fundraising campaign on June 7, selling lifetime passes and seeking private donations to meet a goal set at $300,000, the estimated cost to remove the blockage and repair the tunnel walls. The announcement explicitly stated that if some manner of external funding was not secured it would have no option but to cease operations permanently. On June 19, Save the Redwoods League announced an offer to pay the amount required to meet the fundraising goal in exchange for a conservation easement along the track's 40-mile (64 km) right-of-way. The acceptance of the offer allowed the railroad to resume full service in August 2013.

Tunnel No. 1 was once again closed in 2016 after sustaining damage from the 2015–16 El Nino weather pattern, but the railway was left in a better position, having equipment at the Willits depot to allow the running of half-routes to the Northspur Junction and back (which was not the case during the 2013 crisis); trains from Fort Bragg are limited to running only 3.5 miles (5.6 km) to the Glen Blair Junction (one hour round trip) before returning to the depot, officially called the "Pudding Creek Express."

No announcements regarding the status of Tunnel No. 1 have been made since 2015, though the railroad is fully committed to its reopening. Both tunnel collapses were related to the hillside, which has a history of instability dating back to its construction in 1893.

Railbike tours began in 2018 as a response to the tunnel closures, with multiple other tourist lines around the country introducing their own railbike experiences after the California Western's railbikes proved very popular.

The railroad applied for a United States Department of Transportation BUILD grant in 2018 to fund tunnel repairs and replace over 30,000 ties made of chromated copper arsenate installed by Kyle Railways; this grant was denied in February 2019, but the request was reportedly in the top-third of those sent, and the Department of Transportation encouraged the railroad to re-apply. The railroad also planned to address deferred maintenance issues, and upgrade its tracks for commuter and freight service in anticipation of the reopening of the Northwestern Pacific to Willits and the potential extension of Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit (SMART) to Willits. Had the grant been approved, reconstruction of Tunnel No. 1 would have begun in 2019 and be complete by 2021, while tie replacement would have lasted until 2024.

The railroad plans to reopen the tunnel by the end of 2022.


Expansion plans

In 2019, the railroad purchased 77 acres (31 ha) of the former Fort Bragg Georgia-Pacific mill for redevelopment and extending service to a new terminal. In 2021, they acquired an additional 270-acre (110 ha) site from Georgia-Pacific.


The No. 45 prepares for a journey in 1979.

(Photograph by Terry Oler, 1979, Scanned and uploaded by Jensen Oler, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License., via Wikimedia Commons)


Steam locomotives

Number Builder Type Date Works number Notes
1 Baldwin Locomotive Works 0-4-0T 1885 7831 purchased 1905 sold 1906 to Standish & Hickey Lumber
1st #2 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-4-2T 1887 8852 purchased 1905 sold 1910 to Irvine-Muir Lumber
2nd #2 Baldwin Locomotive Works 0-4-2T 1901 18618 purchased 1911 from California State Belt Railroad scrapped 1920
3rd #2 Lima Locomotive Works Shay geared 18 March 1907 1838 former Glen Blair Redwood Company #2; renumbered Union Lumber Company #2 in May 1929; scrapped 1950
3 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-4-4T 1884 purchased 1895 sold 1918 to Mendocino Lumber Company
4 Hinkley Locomotive Works 4-4-0 1883 purchased from Southern Pacific Railroad 1904 scrapped 1914
5 Schenectady Locomotive Works 4-6-0 1880 2042 purchased 1906 scrapped 1923
6 Mason Machine Works 0-4-0 1868 245 purchased from Santa Fe Railroad 1908 sold 1910
7 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-2T 1909 33390 renumbered #17 in 1924
8 Southern Pacific Railroad 4-6-0 1869 2002 purchased 1910 renumbered #38 in 1924
9 Lima Locomotive Works Shay geared 27 May 1912 2547 sold 1917 to White River Lumber Company of Enumclaw, Washington
10 Lima Locomotive Works Shay geared 6 April 1911 2419 built as Lima Locomotive Works demonstrator; sold 1917 to become Pacific Lumber Company #31
11 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-2T 1913 39551 scrapped 1947
12 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-2T 1914 41922 scrapped 1950
14 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-2T 1924 58050 purchased from Fruit Growers Supply in 1938 sold 1956
17 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-2T 1909 33390 former #7 renumbered in 1924
21 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-2 1920 53277 sold 1950 to Pan-American Engineering
22 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-2 1921 54878 scrapped 1952
23 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-2 1923 57553 scrapped 1950
36 Baldwin Locomotive Works 4-6-0 ~1890 9298 purchased from Colorado Midland Railroad in 1918 sold to Little River Redwood Company in 1929
38 Southern Pacific Railroad 4-6-0 1869 2002 former #8 renumbered 1924 scrapped 1942
1st #41 Baldwin Locomotive Works 0-6-0 1901 18760 purchased 1922 scrapped 1937
2nd #41 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-8-0 1920 53205 purchased from Sierra Railroad in 1940 scrapped 1950
44 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-8-2 1930 61306 purchased from Lamm Lumber Company 1944 scrapped 1952
45 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-8-2 1924 58045 purchased from Brownley Lumber Company 1964, operated until 2001, previously restored 2001–2003, currently being restored 2019–present. Used on the Skunk Train.
46 Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-6-6-2 1937 62064 purchased from Rayonier 1968, on display at Pacific Southwest Railway Museum, restoration planned.

California Western Locomotive GP9 No. 65 at Fort Bragg, February 2020.

(Sergey Yarmolyuk, CC BY-SA 4.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons)


Diesel locomotives

Number Builder Type Date Works number Notes
51 Baldwin Locomotive Works DS4-4-750 1949 74408 Acquired new 1949, wrecked 1970 and scrapped
52 Baldwin Locomotive Works DS4-4-750 1949 74409 Acquired new 1949, wrecked 1970 and scrapped
53 Baldwin Locomotive Works DS4-4-1000 1949 74193 ex-Pan American Engineering W8380; née Army Corps of Engineers W8380, acquired 1956, retired in 1985, to John Bradley, 1985; to Roots of Motive Power Collection
54 Baldwin Locomotive Works S-12 1952/1953 75823 ex-NW (3307); née WAB 307, wrecked 1970 and scrapped
55 Baldwin Locomotive Works RS-12 1955 76024 nee MR 32, acquired 1968, scrapped 1995
56 Baldwin Locomotive Works RS-12 1955 76105 nee MR 33, acquired 1970, retired in 1985 to John Bradley, 1985; to Travel Town Museum (Los Angeles, CA)
57 Baldwin Locomotive Works S-12 1953 75914 nee SP 1539, acquired 1970, retired unknown
61 American Locomotive Works RS-11 1955 Unknown former SP, acquired 1976, status unknown
62 American Locomotive Works RS-11 1955 Unknown former SP, acquired 1976, sold to NVRR 1989
63 American Locomotive Works RS-11 1955 Unknown former SP, acquired 1976, status unknown
64 Electro-Motive Diesel GP9 1955 Unknown Former SP #3411.
65 Electro-Motive Diesel GP9 1955 Unknown Former SP No. 3412. Operational and in regular service. Used on the Skunk Train.
66 Electro-Motive Diesel GP9 1956 Unknown Former C&O No. 6145. Acquired 1998. Operational and in regular service. Used occasionally on the Skunk Train.
67 Electro-Motive Diesel GP9 6/1954 19554 Built as Bangor and Aroostook Railroad No. 77; acquired 1998; never delivered; current location unknown.
M-80 Mack Railbus 1923 Unknown Purchased 1925. Wrecked twice: in 1957 with a delivery truck, and in 1964 with M-100. Scrapped 1964
M-100 Edwards Rail Car Company Motor Car 1925 Unknown Acquired from Moorhead & North Forks Railroad; Operable. Recently repainted back to historic yellow scheme
M-200 SS&IW Motor Car 1927 Unknown Ex-TRC #22; née-LPN 20; to Niles Canyon Railway, 1975; Operable on Niles Canyon Railway
M-300 American Car and Foundry Company Motor Car 1935 Unknown Ex-Salt Lake, Garfield and Western Railway (SLGW); née Aberdeen and Rockfish Railroad No. 106; née Seaboard Air Line Railroad No. 2026; purchased 1963 and rebuilt to eliminate baggage section; operable.

In popular culture

Pop Singer Michelle Lambert performed weekly shows on the Skunk Train during her teenage years.

The railroad has also been featured in several movies, including The Signal Tower (1924), Racing with the Moon (1984), and The Majestic (2001). The M-300 railcar also appears in the 2019 video game Transport Fever 2, the 2016 video game Transport Fever, and the 2014 video game Train Fever, as the first multiple unit that can be built, even carrying the railroad's familiar skunk mascot.


Skunk Train Overview

Owner: Sierra Railroad
Locale: Mendocino County, California, U.S.
Termini: Ft. Bragg / Willits
Type: Heritage railway
System: CWR
Services: 2
Depots: Fort Bragg, California, Willits, California
Ridership: 60,000 (2018)
Opened: 1885 (as Fort Bragg Railroad)
Sold: 2003
Line length: 40 mi (64 km)
Track gauge: 4 ft 8+1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Highest elevation: 1,740 ft (530 m)


CWR&NC Schooners

To see a List of CWR&NC Schooners, click HERE.